MORAL JUDGMENTS IN HISTORY moment we undertake the work of the historian. In other words, if these theses and maxims are not true in the present world they are a necessary part of the structure of the realm of history. For in this latter realm, certainly, no ethical principle can be alleged to override the primary duty of extending charity, that is to*say, increasing human understanding by an effort which always requires the expansion of sympathy. m In the conduct of life we shall often find it the case that the world condenses its assessment of a personality into something which it would not be unjust to describe as rather an aesthetic than a moral judgment. The question of a man's charm and his general demeanour, his bravery and the tact which he shows in the conduct of affairs— all these may be rolled up with our moral approval in what is really a judgment of the total product in so far as it is observable to an outsider. It cannot be denied that this over-all judgment of personalities—which is inclined to regard itself as a moral judgment, and as the final summing-up of the matter—tends to award medals to many of those qualities of personality which bloom more readily in the warmth of favourable circumstance. Here, where we applaud a certain nobility of mind or a niceness of disposition in a man, we are not unaware that fortune itself may have had a part in producing the attractive result. There, on the other hand, where we see forms like blasted oaks, we know that fine shapes of H.H.R.